Monday, December 24, 2012

Merry Christmas And A Happy New Year

I wish all my friends A Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year. Best Wishes and Good Health always.

Happy holidays, do let your hair down and indulge in anything you wish to celebrate the festive season.

Each New Year will be better than the previous year.

Take care and Best wishes Always.

Allen Lai

Monday, December 17, 2012

NCSM Prostrate Cancer Support Group Annual Get-together

Sunday 16 December 2012. It was the time of the year to celebrate another successful year for our group. This time, both the support groups from NCSM and SJMC came together for our annual bash.

 The get-together was held at the Seri Pacific Hotel on Jalan Putra. The buffet lunch which was generously sponsored by the NCSM and was attended by about 50 people comprising survivors, doctors, radiographers and staff from NCSM and SJMC.

We had a stumptous buffet lunch and ate to our fullest. Yummy.

Let these photos tell the stories.

Till we meet again and again and again and again ........

Allen Lai

Saturday, October 27, 2012

Anti-Angiogenesis Therapy

Hi all,

All cancer survivors fear a relapse of the disease which will almost cause metastasis or the spreading of the cancer cells unabatedly. Metastasis occur mainly due to our body's natural mechanism called angiogenesis.

Anti Angiogenesis Therapy stops angiogenesis. It blocks the pathway to feeding the cancer cells.

Watch Dr William Li explain in the Video link below.

Take care

Allen Lai

Friday, October 26, 2012


Under normal circumstance cells in our body maintain a high integrity of cell health. Our body has a natural process called Autophagy to eliminate damaged / mutated cells.

Cells Under Stress
Cells use autophagy to digest damaged or defective molecules, effectively eliminating the stressors like mis-folded proteins and damaged organelles that can threaten cell health, or in the case of hypoxia and serum starvation, devour existing proteins and organelles to generate key nutrients for survival. One process of autophagy involves the formation of a membrane around the damaged molecules, sequestering it from the rest of the cytosol with subsequent fusion with lysosomes. Autophagy is also thought to play a role in apoptosis or programmed cell death.
Autophagy—The Basics

How Autophagy Works.
When it comes to managing stress, our cells function like efficient machines, quickly assessing the situation and finding ways to adjust. Autophagy—literally, “eating oneself”—is one way that cells deal with typical day-to-day stress (misfolded proteins, aged or defective organelles) as well as unexpected disasters (hypoxic conditions, serum starvation, viral infections). The cellular machinery either digests the damaged or defective molecules, effectively eliminating the stressors that threaten cell health, or, in the case of hypoxia and serum starvation, devours existing proteins and organelles to generate key nutrients for survival.

Above article curtesy of
Take care
Allen Lai


It was during one of my radiation session that I had naively asked my Oncologist if I could participate in the coming marathon. He nonchalantly replied "yes, if you still can"
Yes fatigue sets in pretty quickly during any type of treatments, be it surgery, radiation, hormonal or chemo. I never stood a chance even when taking small steps, one a time.

I was literally tired out most of the time after my 30 plus radiation sessions. Radiation had zapped up my muscle intensity. It took me a full year to regain some strength to jog up the slopes in my neighbourhood. Below are the explanation as to why we fagged out after treatments.

Fatigue is the number one side effect of cancer treatment. It is a side effect of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy. Health officials estimate that 90% of people experience fatigue during or after the treatment.

Recognize Fatigue

It is a lack of energy that develops suddenly or slowly over time from our activities of everyday life. It can be overwhelming and it is generally not relieved by rest or sleep.
The symptoms are:
- We feel like we have no energy
- We sleep more than usual
- We have difficulty of concentration
- We feel tired after nighttime
- We lack sexual desire
- We are irritable or impatient
- We feel lazy and not interested of our personal hygiene
We understand that those symptoms will lessen overtime once cancer treatment is over.

The Why of Fatigue

Fatigue during treatment can be related to cancer or the treatment. Many chemotherapy drugs cause fatigue by destroying part of our bone marrow which produce white and red blood cells. The white constitute part of our immune system where as the red carry the oxygen though our blood. Deficiency of one type of these cells will cause anemia.
Healing for surgery can also drain our reserve energy which translates into fatigue.

Contribution to fatigue

We eat less because of loss of appetite with change in taste, nausea, vomiting and mouth sores. We can become dehydrated with diarrhea and vomiting.
Also cancer cells compete with normal cells for nutrients which can slow down the growth of normal cell.

Coping with fatigue

Some ways to decrease or manage fatigue is to adjust our diet, reduce our stress and increase our physical activity.
We can plan short rest period and conserve energy for our important things. We can use light stretching session and exercise to counter fatigue.
Plan our day. We can do the most important thing first and the least important last. Space out activities. We are not doing an iron-man or women here.
Take enough continuous sleep like 8 hours straight. Remember that fatigue is temporary and our energy level will slowly improve as our blood return to normal.
Ask for help with housework, meal and errands. We are not alone and our team will gladly help us. Drink tea, we hydrate ourselves and fight cancer at the same time.
The above article is curtesy from 
Take care
Allen Lai

Friday, October 19, 2012

Help DELL Computers to fight Paediatric Cancer

Hi all,
DELL Computers have come up with an innovative initiative to raise funds to do research for Paediatric Cancers.

Please watch the video as many times as you wish. Each time you watch the video, DELL contribute $1.00 for the research.


Thank you and please pass this video on for more contributions.

You can make the difference.

Allen Lai

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Race for the Cure

Hi ladies,
Watch this inspiring video. 30 years of Moments and Milestones. Susan G Komen for the Cure. Watch Races for the Cure worldwide. I hope our Pink Ladies will organise a Race for the Cure here in KL.

See the video in U-tube

So proud of the you ladies in Pink.
Take care

Allen Lai

Ladies Know your drugs

Hi Ladies,
It is good to know what drugs are currently available for breast cancer. Know what each class of drugs are used and its side effects.

Visit below for some current drugs:

Take care

Allen Lai

T-DM1 - The latest drug for Breasts Cancer 2012

Hi ladies,

Good news,
T-DM1 combines with Hercepin will reduce a lot of side effects, including hair loss. T-DM1 is used for  treating the most aggressive form of breast cancer; advanced HER-2 possitive breast cancer.

T-DM1 contains an extremely potent form of chemotherapy that’s been around 20 years which we haven’t been able to use before because it’s so toxic. Clever new technology has allowed these two older drugs to be linked so that the chemotherapy  is not released until it reaches  the target.

curtest of

Good Luck ladies. Fighting!!!

Take care
Allen Lai

iPhone / iPad Apps for people with Cancer

Apple Apps Store

In the fast moving world of smart phones, tablets and mobile tools. Apps contents are coming out just as rapidly. Thanks to programmers who had come out with some very useful apps for the iPhone/iPad.
Some good apps are free of charge. I managed to review some and would like to recommend some popular free apps that we can use. They are:

a. IchemoDiary
b. CaringBridge
c. Mobile
d. Breast Cancer Diagnosis Guide
e. Beyond the Shock
f. Keep a Breast

Go to iTunes/ Apple Apps Store and check them out. You will be glad you did.

Take care

Allen Lai

Loose that Fat

Hi all, Loose that fat. The pictorial below says it all.

If you have trouble loosing weight/fat in a healthy way. Call me.

Take care

Allen Lai

Monday, October 15, 2012

Recent FDA approved drugs for Prostrate Cancer 2012

Hi all,

I had relentlessly sought to know more about cancer and in particularly Prostrate Cancer to update myself and to share this knowledge. I have the skills and tools to browse the internet for the latest information and the basic aptitude to vet and discuss the issues presented. I am not a doctor in anyway nor a quack, But I do try my best to digest everything worthwhile and to share what is relevant. Below are some of the recently approved cancer drugs approved by the FDA.

Some of the recently approved prostate cancer drugs that have been shown to prolong life:

Provenge. A vaccine approved by the FDA in April 2010 that primes a man's immune system to attack an existing tumor. Sold by Dendreon. It costs $93,000 for a standard course of three treatments. Provenge is now available in Malaysia.

Cabazitaxel. A new form of chemotherapy, approved in June 2010, and sold by Sanofi-Aventis under the name Jevtana. The typical six cycles cost about $50,000.

Abiraterone. Approved in April 2011, and sold by Janssen Biotech under the brand name Zytiga, it deprives tumors of testosterone. An eight-month course of treatments costs about $47,000. Zytiga is now available in Malaysia.

Enzalutamide. Approved in August 2012, enzalutamide, sold under the name Xtandi and developed by Medivation and Astellas Pharma, blocks the ability of testosterone to enhance cancer growth. A typical eight-month treatment costs nearly $60,000.

Radium 223. Still awaiting FDA approval, this drug from Bayer HealthCare would carry radioactive particles deep into the bone where tumors are spreading, and kill cancer cells.

Most of the above drugs should be available in Singapore.

Sources: Lee Kalowski, Credit Suisse Group; Howard Scher, Memorial Sloan-Kettering; Philip Kantoff, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

For full treatments options, you may want to read the latest information from this website

Take care

Allen Lai

Cancer Treatment Options

Hi all,

This is a new website on cancer treatments, particularly discussing option treatments. It is good to review what are the options, but do take caution and common sense before any conclusion is made.
Always discuss options with your Oncologist before commencing to undertake any option. It may contradict whatever treatments you are currently prescribed.

This site however does give some good insight to what options are available. Do read the past postings.

Visit the website at

Take care

Allen Lai

Fighting Cancer - A dual fight

Fighting Cancer is actually two fights in one. Firstly fighting the cancer cells and second, fighting the clinical treatments. The latter at times more difficult. This is my personal opinion as a soldier and fighter. We have to take all scenarios and factor in all considerations in winning the final battle. To survive. One can win in killing off all the cancer cells but still die from the harsh effects of the treatments.

Fighting Cancer cells is a tough fight and we need to harness all combat powers to win. And it is a winnable fight, whether it is a total destruction of the cancer cells or a total suppression of the cancer cells to submission. To do this there are many approved medical treatments and protocols to kill off the cancer cells. But there are no "good" nor "bad" treatments. The approach to treatments is dependent on many factors and conditions. Many survivors will attest that the integrated approach to treatment is the best course of action. Combining conventional treatments and complementary treatments do add synergy to the fight. Alternative treatments may seem attractive in the short term or to hopelessness, but with very high combat risks.

Fighting to recover from treatment needs lots of efforts and having a good body condition. Further adjunct medications do help in the short term, but again more side effects for the body to deal with. So before we decide what treatments to opt for in dealing with the cancer cells in us, we should firstly look at our body condition and fitness to withstand the treatment. Age and other ailments in the body are also main considerations to the choice of treatments. You are the best advisor to the choice of treatment. You should know your body conditions better than any doctor or oncologist. It is going to be your fight after the prescribed treatments. Your doctor can only monitor and assist you in a very secondary way. This is your fight. To improve your physique and body combat power to fight off the invasive treatment modalities. You would have a very short time to fight off the impacts of chemo, radiation, hormonal changes and loss of an organ after surgery. And most of the time our treatments will include more than one modality.

Both chemo and radiation have a protracted length of time inside our body. Producing free radicals, carcinogens and distorting our DNA every second.

Fighting off treatments is a protracted war.

Time is the essence in both the fights, against the cancer cells and recover from the treatments. But what we can do is to prepare for our body physique and fitness at all times. We cannot jump start fitness. The body needs time to develop to a new level of fitness. There is no way to an instant fitness. It actually need rest time to development time in gaining fitness. Unfortunately there are no shortcuts.

Early detection of cancer and early preparations to good health and body conditions are key to winning the dual battle.

Take care

Allen Lai

Prostrate Support Group Annual Get-together

Hi all,

Time to celebrate another good year. The Prostrate Support Groups from NCSM and Subang Medical Centre will hold our annual get-together on Saturday 15 December 2012 at the Empire Mall Subang Jaya, for High Tea.

Do come along with your families and care giver. Give them a treat for all their love and caring.

Call me at 013-3948839 for details.

Take Care.

Allen Lai

Relay For Life 2012

 me, Fighting!!!

Good job NCSM and thank you for RFL every year

Relay For Life 2012 in Kuala Lumpur was a very successful event. It had rained for the past two full days and we had thought we would have a wet evening. But God was kind and it stopped abruptly at 4.00 pm and  thence a beautiful and fresh evening and night.

I enjoyed the occasion and shared our joy in celebrating Life with all our cancer survivors. Four dedications were read and memories shared for our departed friends.

The Survivor's lap flagged off at 6 pm followed by groups of our support groups. Tentages were arranged in rows in the middle of the stadiums for over night stay. All the survivor's marque tentages were well manned and patronised.

The lighting of the luminaries was very touching, love and memories shared with one and all.

The evening's celebrating included music and performances by volunteer groups. Malaysia's celebrities also came up on stage. And lastly there were tons of good foods in the food hall.
I will let my pictures uploaded to my Facebook to tell the rest of the story.

Visit my Facebook at laikimhinn to download any picture at will.

I will certainly attend next years Relay for Life. To celebrate Life.
Take care

Allen Lai

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Hidden Sugars

Being Diabetic, I am always dreadful of consuming too much sugar, particularly hidden sugars. It is a common fact that 75% of our sugar intake is hidden in all the foods we consume, conscious or unconsciously. Food industries add sugar to make their food nicer to eat. Even foods that are labeled “Low Fat” will normally have added sugar to compensate the removal of fats. Sugar is carbohydrate found in natural or processed foods. Sucrose, Dextrose, Fructose, syrups are all simple sugars. Starches are the second type of sugars, and dietary plant fibres are the third type. The American Heart Foundation recommends limiting our daily intake of sugar of no more than 150 calories for men and 100 calories for women.

How do we know the content of sugar in the food we buy? The obvious answer is to read the Nutrition label carefully. We should not be satisfied with foods labeled “good for us”, as there will always be a catch somewhere. Some products label sugar as total carbohydrate. Then again we should be able to translate and interpret the label “amount per serving”. I believe “per serving” is the most ambiguous measurement of quantity. I still do not know how to interpret it. Do you?

Reading the ingredient list on the label is no help either. We would not know how much of sugar is actually inherent from the food or how much of sugar is added on. Diet Foods are actually the biggest culprits with added sugar. The lower the Fat is reduced, the higher the compensation with sugar. So we should be more careful with diet foods as sugar is used to fill in the taste gap.
Another area for caution is “sugar free” or “no added sugar”. It does not mean there is no sugar at all. These foods may be high in other sugars. They are not automatically no sugar products.
Artificial or synthetic sugars are bad sweeteners. I believe they are basically chemicals and not natural sugars, except for some that are harvested from plants. We should avoid consuming these sugars altogether.

With so much sugar hidden in our foods, I have decided to challenge my sweet tooth instead. I have totally given up all sugared soft drinks. I have not added sugar to my hot drinks coffee and tea in the morning. I do not crave for sweet things like before. I have a fair understanding of the Glycemic Indexes (GI) of food and Glycemic loads. I try to avoid high GI foods and eat lesser portions all the time. I try to eat as many times as possible of small amounts each time.

My only draw back now is my craving for food after my exercises, giving rise to sugar spikes. I feel week and faint after an hour of any exercises and feel that I should be eating or drinking something sweet.
On special days I enjoy a sweet treat. Why not? I am aware of the hidden sugar and that will make me eat or drink less.

Take care

Allen Lai

Saturday, September 15, 2012

Profiles in Leadership

Winter Vinecki and her late father

Winter Vinecki is an amazing young lady. An elite athlete from the age of five years old and now a Global Fighter for Prostrate Cancer. She is determined, compassionate, focused and an Angel from Heaven. She is featured in Profiles in Leadership at the Prostrate Cancer Foundation.
Her inspiration is beyond words. The world salutes her.
Watch her interview video here.

Visit Winter's website here

Take Care

Allen Lai

Prostrate Cancer, Exercise and Nutrition

I was browsing the Prostrate Cancer Foundation website and came upon a very uptodate study and information about the Exercise and Nutrition to Prostrate Cancer. It is the best way to be on the offensive to fight cancer. Whilst this book is basically about Prostrate Cancer it is also very relevant to all types of Cancers.

Download and read it. It will save your life. 

The Prostrate Cancer Foundation is linked here:

Take care 

Allen Lai

Friday, September 14, 2012

Princess Kate

Prince William and Princess Kate

Prince William and Princess Kate are now in Kuala Lumpur. The princess visited HOSPIS Malaysia. We are pleased that the Princess take after her late mother in Law Princess Diana in palliative care for the terminal and the sufferings of children. She has won the heart of all Malaysian.
I append her first speech on foreign lands. She is so wonderful, compassionate and elegant.

Visit the link below for her speech.

Thank you Princess Kate.

Allen Lai

Thursday, August 30, 2012

How am I doing?

How am I been doing?  I have been asked this question time and time again. It is now like a greeting, matter of fact question or worse still a salutation.  I'll let my recent photos answer the question.

I do a lot of this in my neighbourhood

Weekends on this

Monday and Wednesday mornings

Sweat on this

To get this satisfaction

Nothing beats this moment

Chill out with the gang

To celebrate a new year younger

 To keep the mind active and crazy with my Macbook Air

To listen to my Oncologist

To have hope to live another year to be with you.

Take care all
Allen Lai

Saturday, August 18, 2012

Food, More food

Whilst on the subject of foods, you may want to visit the world's most healtiest food website here.

These foods are selected for its nutrients, availability, affordability, taste, familiarity and wholesomeness.

Also find out why your favourite food are not listed here. It is most likely that your favourite food does not meet the above criteria.

Details and descriptions of the food are very well documented, organised and presented.

Enjoy your meal

Allen Lai

Proven Cancer Prevention Foods

Eat colourful fruits and vegies 

Time and again I have been asked What are the best foods to eat to fight Cancer. My truthful answer had always been " Ayoh, Lets see erm...."

So I will post here again an extract from Cancer Battlefield Website.

Cancer is a genetic disease. Generally, this is how most people think. If your dad had it so would you. However, scientific research doesn’t support this way of thinking. Heredity doesn’t necessary give you an ill fated road map to your death bed. Your genes aren’t the most critical factor but rather, what you eat! Your genes would be influenced by what goes through your mouth. However, eating habit are the most important factor.
Here’s good news if you’re thinking just how you’d prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute promotes five important foods to prevent cancer.


broccoli, cauliflower, onion, garlic, carrot, sweet potato, spinach, beans, avocado, lettuce, and asparagus – are some you should include in your every day meals. Cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and kale plus tomatoes are loaded with potent phytochemicals and antioxidants. They reduce your risk of prostate and other types of cancer.


Fruit isn’t difficult to eat. Most of us love fruits. Eat fresh organically grown fruits raw. If juiced, consume the pulp as well to get the most benefits. Luscious red grapesstrawberries, raspberries, blueberries are brimming with antioxidants that fight cancer. Fruits prevent the absorption of cancer causing nitrosamines from processed food and from soil chemicals. The deeper the color of berries the richer in antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic phytochemicals.


Cold water fish are the one we look for. Fish oils protect you from prostate and colon cancer. Deep ocean fishes such as Nordic wild fishes are stuffed with omega 3 fatty acids. These are essential fatty acids that prevent initiation of breast cancer. Fish oils works by decreasing bad cholesterol that sets off inflammation- a pathway to cancer growth.


Teas – specifically green tea – are loaded with anti-cancer chemicals. While vegetables and fruits provide essential nutrients, green tea is the richest in antioxidants. Drinking at least three cups of tea can protect you from a variety of cancer growths. They halt the transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells.

Soy products

Protein-rich soy is packed with phytochemicals responsible for the prevention of breast cancer. Drink your soy milk, tofu, granules or pulse and gain the benefits. But avoid processed soy.

Bottom line

Wiliam Li said that mother nature have laced plants with weapons to fight cancer. If you’d ask again, what can I do to prevent cancer? Consume five to ten servings of veggies and fruits daily, drink your soy and tea plus enjoy your salmon steak. 
Allen Lai

Anti-Angiogenesis Food

Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels in the body, has been identified as the common denominator in many diseases, says Dr. Li. The number of blood vessels in our bodies needs to stay balanced to keep our defense systems strong; we don’t want too many or too few. Too few means wounds won’t heal, and we won't be protected against serious medical conditions, such as heart attacks. But if we have too many, the abundance of blood vessels can feed cancer cells that already exist in our bodies, causing tumors to grow.

Studies have shown that 40 percent of women between 40 to 50 years old have microscopic cancers in their breasts, and 50 percent of men in their 50s and 60s have microscopic cancers in their prostates. By the time we're in our 70s, almost 100 percent of us will have microscopic cancers in our thyroid glands. The good news: Most of them are harmless. Our bodies have “anti-angiogenesis” defense systems, which stop blood vessels from harboring these cancers.

And while we can’t change our genetics or our family history, we can change our diet. Certain foods contain naturally-occurring substances that are "anti-angiogenic" -- meaning they starve cancer cells.

 Here are his top 4:

1. Squid

The active ingredient in this powerful seafood is omega-3 fatty acid. It's Mother Nature’s fat, and is protective against breast cancer and heart disease. The best way to eat squid is to cut it into rings and saute it in garlic and olive oil. The garlic contains alliin, which is also anti-angiogenic, while olive oil contains cancer-starving polyphenols. A study of 35,000 women found that just 3 ounces of squid per day could reduce the risk of breast cancer by 26 percent.

2. Tomatoes

If you eat a tomato raw, the active ingredients (lycopene, beta-cryptozanthin, and rutin) will be hard for your body to absorb. Instead, cook tomatoes to 190 degrees. Try heating San Marzano tomatoes (they contain the highest amount of lycopene) in olive oil for 20 minutes to reach the desired temperature. The cooking also changes their chemical structure so the nutrients are easier to absorb. A study, which followed 70,000 men for 20 years, found that eating 2 to 3 cups of cooked tomatoes per week can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by 40 to 50 percent.

3. Lentils

Incorporate healthy lentils into your diet with salads and pasta dishes. This potent bean contains kaempferol, which helps restore cells in the body, and fights the blood vessels that can lead to cancer cells. A Nurses' Health study, which followed more than 34,000 women over a 30-year period, found that eating 1/2 cup of cooked lentils four times a week can reduce the risk of colon polyps (precancers in the colon) by 33 percent.

4. Tangerine Juice

Drinking 2 cups of freshly squeezed citrus juice a day reduces the risk of esophageal cancer by 42 percent, according to a NIH-AARP Diet and Health study of 490,000 people. Orange and grapefruit juice also contain the same potent antioxidants -- hesperidin and naringenin.

Curtesy of The Martha  Stewart Show



One of the most important and vital understanding of cancer growth mechanism is Angiogenesis. It is this very mechanism that the body feeds cancer cells which invariably causes Metastasis; allowing cancer cells to spread to other parts of the body. Thanks to The Angiogenesis Foundation that more studies and researches are being undertaken to mitigate and arrest Metastasis. If we want to fight off Metastasis we should first understand the underlining factors in Angiogenesis.

Below are extracts from the Foundation.

1. How the body controls Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis (angio'gen'esis) -- the growth of new blood vessels -- is an important natural process occurring in the body, both in health and in disease. 

Angiogenesis occurs in the healthy body for healing wounds and for restoring blood flow to tissues after injury or insult. In females, angiogenesis also occurs during the monthly reproductive cycle (to rebuild the uterus lining, to mature the egg during ovulation) and during pregnancy (to build the placenta, the circulation between mother and fetus).
The healthy body controls angiogenesis through a series of "on" and "off" switches:
The main "on" switches are known as angiogenesis-stimulating growth factors

The main "off switches" are known as angiogenesis inhibitors
When angiogenic growth factors are produced in excess of angiogenesis inhibitors, the balance is tipped in favor of blood vessel growth. When inhibitors are present in excess of stimulators, angiogenesis is stopped. The normal, healthy body maintains a perfect balance of angiogenesis modulators. In general, angiogenesis is "turned off" by the production of more inhibitors than stimulators.

2. The Angiogenesis Process: How Do New Blood Vessels Grow?
The process of angiogenesis occurs as an orderly series of events:

Diseased or injured tissues produce and release angiogenic growth factors (proteins) that diffuse into the nearby tissues.
The angiogenic growth factors bind to specific receptors located on the endothelial cells (EC) of nearby preexisting blood vessels.
Once growth factors bind to their receptors, the endothelial cells become activated. Signals are sent from the cell's surface to the nucleus.
The endothelial cell's machinery begins to produce new molecules including enzymes. These enzymes dissolve tiny holes in the sheath-like covering (basement membrane) surrounding all existing blood vessels.
The endothelial cells begin to divide (proliferate) and migrate out through the dissolved holes of the existing vessel towards the diseased tissue (tumor).
Specialized molecules called adhesion molecules called integrins (avb3, avb5) serve as grappling hooks to help pull the sprouting new blood vessel sprout forward.
Additional enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases, or MMP) are produced to dissolve the tissue in front of the sprouting vessel tip in order to accommodate it. As the vessel extends, the tissue is remolded around the vessel.
Sprouting endothelial cells roll up to form a blood vessel tube.
Individual blood vessel tubes connect to form blood vessel loops that can circulate blood.
Finally, newly formed blood vessel tubes are stabilized by specialized muscle cells (smooth muscle cells, pericytes) that provide structural support. Blood flow then begins.

3. Excessive angiogenesis:
Occurs in diseases such as cancer, diabetic blindness, age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and more than 70 other conditions.
In these conditions, new blood vessels feed diseased tissues, destroy normal tissues, and in the case of cancer, the new vessels allow tumor cells to escape into the circulation and lodge in other organs (tumor metastases).
Excessive angiogenesis occurs when diseased cells produce abnormal amounts of angiogenic growth factors, overwhelming the effects of natural angiogenesis inhibitors.
Antiangiogenic therapies, aimed at halting new blood vessel growth, are used to treat these conditions.

4. Known Angiogenic Growth Factors

Fibroblast growth factors: acidic (aFGF) and basic (bFGF)
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) /scatter factor (SF)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8)
Placental growth factor
Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)
Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)
Pleiotrophin (PTN)
Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/vascular permeability factor (VPF)

5. Known Angiogenesis Inhibitors

Angiostatin (plasminogen fragment)
Antiangiogenic antithrombin III
Cartilage-derived inhibitor (CDI)
CD59 complement fragment
Endostatin (collagen XVIII fragment)
Fibronectin fragment
Fibronectin fragment (Anastellin)
Heparin hexasaccharide fragment
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Interferon alpha/beta/gamma
Interferon inducible protein (IP-10)
Kringle 5 (plasminogen fragment)
Metalloproteinase inhibitors (TIMPs)
Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF)
Placental ribonuclease inhibitor
Plasminogen activator inhibitor
Platelet factor-4 (PF4)
Prolactin 16kD fragment
Proliferin-related protein (PRP)
Prothrombin kringle 2
Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (S-Flt-1)
Targeting fibronectin-binding integrins
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and -2
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b)
Troponin I
Vasostatin (calreticulin fragment)

Visit the foundation’s website here

Take care
Allen Lai